How to Build a Worm Farm
(from the Latin word vermis meaning worm) is an efficient and effective
method for turning kitchen waste into a rich compost. Some of the
benefits of keeping a worm farm include:
- Recycling kitchen food waste,
- Reducing waste,
- Having a ready supply of fishing worms, and
- Producing soil amendments and/or fertilizer for garden plants.
worms, known also as red wigglers or manure worms, are the most
effective worms to use for worm composting. They are capable of
consuming their own weight each day in raw organic matter.
Where are they found? - Red
worms feed on dead plants and animals and are commonly found in
leaf litter, manure piles or from a local bait shop.
What do they look like? - Red
worms are two to four inches in length and red in color.
How long do they live? – They have a life span of about one
year and reproduce quickly. Light colored cocoons are produced continuously
that yield two to three baby worms in three weeks time.
- An aerated container (i.e. large Cool Whip tubs)
- 10 red wiggler worms (Refer to the RESOURCES section to find
businesses that sell worms.)
- 1 tablespoon of outside dirt or compost
- ½ page of 8 ½" x 11" white paper shredded into thin
strips for bedding
- 1 cup of water
- 1 small bowl
- Crushed egg shells or apple peels cut up in small pieces
- Have an adult punch approximately 12 holes around the sides
of the container and 25 holes in the lid for air.
- Pour water in separate bowl, tear paper into strips, and place
into water. Squeeze water from paper and place in container.
- Place dirt or compost in container.
- Add small pieces of food scraps to container (no meat or dairy
- Mix together all contents in container.
- Add worms to container. Observe how the worms immediately go
down under the paper to avoid light.
provides the red worms with the cool, moist environment they need
to thrive. The red worms will tunnel through and digest the bedding
along with the food scraps to produce vermicompost. They will not
crawl out of their bin unless the bin becomes too dry or too wet.
Red worms are most efficient at consuming organic matter and reproducing
when they are kept moist and well ventilated in a temperature range
of 55º – 75º F. Keep the worm farm covered and out
of direct sunlight because red worms are sensitive to light. Basements,
cool garages and kitchens are all good locations.
Feed your worms two to three times each week by burying appropriate
food scraps under the bedding. The smaller the food scraps, the
quicker they will be digested by the red worms.
|Crushed egg shells
(no onion or garlic)
|Chemicals, glass, metal
- During the observation process, periodically check the container
to see the results. If the paper drys out, mist with a spray bottle.
- The vermicomposting process takes 4-8 weeks (depending on the
size of the bin) before all the bedding and waste will turn into
humus, the end product.
- The end product of vermicomposting will contain worm castings
(manure), decomposed bedding, and worms and tiny organisms dead
and alive. The humus can be added to potting mix for houseplants
or the end product and worms can be placed in the garden to enrich
- Do not release the worms during cold weather as they will not
be able to dig through frozen ground.
Composting information courtesy of the Maryland
Department of the Environmentt